Shigellosis in Southeast Asia: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Basilua Andre Muzembo, Kei Kitahara, Debmalya Mitra, Ayumu Ohno, Januka Khatiwada, Shanta Dutta, Shin Ichi Miyoshi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Southeast Asia is attractive for tourism. Unfortunately, travelers to this region are at risk of becoming infected with Shigella. We conducted a meta-analysis to provide updates on Shigella prevalence in Southeast Asia, along with their serogroups and serotypes. Methods: We conducted a systematic search using PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science for peer-reviewed studies from 2000 to November 2022. We selected studies that detected Shigella in stools by culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Two reviewers extracted the data using a standardized form and performed quality assessments using the Joanna Briggs Institute checklist. The random effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of Shigella. Results: During our search, we identified 4376 studies. 29 studies (from six Southeast Asian countries) were included in the systematic review, 21 each in the meta-analysis of the prevalence of Shigella (Sample size: 109545) and the prevalence of Shigella serogroups. The pooled prevalence of Shigella was 4% (95% CI: 4–5%) among diarrhea cases. Shigella sonnei was the most abundant serogroup in Thailand (74%) and Vietnam (57%), whereas Shigella flexneri was dominant in Indonesia (72%) and Cambodia (71%). Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella boydii were uncommon (pooled prevalence of 1% each). The pooled prevalence of Shigella was 5% (95% CI: 4–6%) in children aged <5 years. The pooled prevalence showed a decreasing trend comparing data collected between 2000–2013 (5%; 95% CI: 4–6%) and between 2014–2022 (3%; 95% CI: 2–4%). Shigella prevalence was 6% in studies that included participants with mixed pathogens versus 3% in those without. Shigella flexneri serotype 2a was the most frequently isolated (33%), followed by 3a (21%), 1b (10%), 2b (3%), and 6 (3%). Conclusions: This study provides compelling evidence for the development of effective Shigella vaccines for residents of endemic regions and travellers to these areas.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102554
JournalTravel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2023


  • Diarrhea
  • Dysentery
  • Shiga toxin
  • Shigella flexneri
  • Shigella sonnei
  • Shigella vaccine
  • Travel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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