Site-Directed Mutagenesis in Barley Using RNA-Guided Cas Endonucleases During Microspore-Derived Generation of Doubled Haploids

Robert Eric Hoffie, Ingrid Otto, Hiroshi Hisano, Jochen Kumlehn

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

2 Citations (Scopus)


In plant research and breeding, haploid technology is employed upon crossing, induced mutagenesis or genetic engineering to generate populations of meiotic recombinants that are themselves genetically fixed. Thanks to the speed and efficiency in producing true-breeding lines, haploid technology has become a major driver of modern crop improvement. In the present study, we used embryogenic pollen cultures of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare) for Cas9 endonuclease-mediated targeted mutagenesis in haploid cells, which facilitates the generation of homozygous primary mutant plants. To this end, microspores were extracted from immature anthers, induced to undergo cell proliferation and embryogenic development in vitro, and were then inoculated with Agrobacterium for the delivery of T-DNAs comprising expression units for Cas9 endonuclease and target gene-specific guide RNAs (gRNAs). Amongst the regenerated plantlets, mutants were identified by PCR amplification of the target regions followed by sequencing of the amplicons. This approach also enabled us to discriminate between homozygous and heterozygous or chimeric mutants. The heritability of induced mutations and their homozygous state were experimentally confirmed by progeny analyses. The major advantage of the method lies in the preferential production of genetically fixed primary mutants, which facilitates immediate phenotypic analyses and, relying on that, a particularly efficient preselection of valuable lines for detailed investigations using their progenies.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMethods in Molecular Biology
PublisherHumana Press Inc.
Number of pages16
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology
ISSN (Print)1064-3745
ISSN (Electronic)1940-6029


  • Cereals
  • Genome editing
  • Targeted mutagenesis
  • cas9

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics


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