Smoking and periodontal microorganisms

Takashi Hanioka, Manabu Morita, Tatsuo Yamamoto, Koji Inagaki, Pao Li Wang, Hiroshi Ito, Toshiya Morozumi, Toru Takeshita, Nao Suzuki, Hideo Shigeishi, Masaru Sugiyama, Kouji Ohta, Toru Nagao, Nobuhiro Hanada, Miki Ojima, Hiroshi Ogawa

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


Resolution of dysbiosis following treatment for periodontal disease and tobacco dependence has been reported in longitudinal intervention studies. In the present report, we evaluated the biological findings regarding the effect of smoking on the periodontal microbiome. A standardized electronic search was conducted using MEDLINE; overall, 1099 papers were extracted. Studies that addressed the relationship between tobacco and periodontal pathogens were included. Finally, 42 papers were deemed appropriate for the present review. Functional changes in periodontal pathogens exposed to nicotine and cigarette smoke extract support the clinical findings regarding dysbiosis of the subgingival microbiome. Dysbiosis of the periodontal microbiome was presented in smokers regardless of their periodontal condition (healthy, gingivitis, or periodontitis) and remained significant only in smokers even after the resolution of experimentally-induced gingivitis and following reduction of clinical signs of periodontitis with non-surgical periodontal treatment and over 3 months post-therapy. Based on these findings, smoking cessation in periodontitis patients is beneficial for promoting a health-compatible subgingival microbial community. To maximize the benefits of these interventions in dental settings, further studies on periodontal microbiome are needed to elucidate the impact of tobacco intervention on preventing recurrence of periodontal destruction in the susceptible subjects.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)88-94
Number of pages7
JournalJapanese Dental Science Review
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2019


  • Nicotine
  • Oral microorganism
  • Periodontal disease
  • Smoking
  • Smoking cessation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Smoking and periodontal microorganisms'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this