Spectral tuning in sensory rhodopsin I from Salinibacter ruber

Yuki Sudo, Yasufumi Yuasa, Jun Shibata, Daisuke Suzuki, Michio Homma

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26 Citations (Scopus)


Organisms utilize light as energy sources and as signals. Rhodopsins, which have seven transmembrane α-helices with retinal covalently linked to a conserved Lys residue, are found in various organisms as distant in evolution as bacteria, archaea, and eukarya. One of the most notable properties of rhodopsin molecules is the large variation in their absorption spectrum. Sensory rhodopsin I (SRI) and sensory rhodopsin II (SRII) function as photosensors and have similar properties (retinal composition, photocycle, structure, and function) except for their λmax (SRI, ∼560 nm; SRII, ∼500 nm). An expression system utilizing Escherichia coli and the high protein stability of a newly found SRI-like protein, SrSRI, enables studies of mutant proteins. To determine the residue contributing to the spectral shift from SRI to SRII, we constructed various SRI mutants, in which individual residues were substituted with the corresponding residues of SRII. Three such mutants of SrSRI showed a large spectral blue-shift (>14 nm) without a large alteration of their retinal composition. Two of them, A136Y and A200T, are newly discovered color tuning residues. In the triple mutant, the λmax was 525 nm. The inverse mutation of SRII (F134H/Y139A/T204A) generated a spectral-shifted SRII toward longer wavelengths, although the effect is smaller than in the case of SRI, which is probably due to the lack of anion binding in the SRII mutant. Thus, half of the spectral shift from SRI to SRII could be explained by only those three residues taking into account the effect of Cl- binding.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11328-11336
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2011
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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