Spermine is not essential for survival of Arabidopsis

Akihiro Imai, Takashi Akiyama, Tomohiko Kato, Shusei Sato, Satoshi Tabata, Kotaro T. Yamamoto, Taku Takahashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

123 Citations (Scopus)


Spermine is the final product of the polyamine biosynthetic pathway and is ubiquitously present in most organisms. The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana has two genes encoding spermine synthase: ACAULIS5 (ACL5), whose loss-of-function mutants show a severe defect in stem elongation, and SPMS. In order to elucidate the function of spermine in plants, we isolated a T-DNA insertion mutant of the SPMS gene. Free and conjugated spermine levels in the mutant, designated spms-1, were significantly decreased compared with those in the wild-type, but no obvious morphological phenotype was observed in spms-1 plants. We further confirmed that acl5-1 spms-1 double mutants contained no spermine. Surprisingly, acl5-1 spms-1 was fully as viable as the wild-type and showed no phenotype except for the reduced stem growth due to acl5-1. These results indicate that spermine is not essential for survival of Arabidopsis, at least under normal growth conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)148-152
Number of pages5
JournalFEBS Letters
Issue number1-3
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • ACL5
  • Arabidopsis thaliana
  • Polyamine
  • SPMS
  • Spermine synthase

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Structural Biology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Cell Biology


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