Stacking order reduction in multilayer graphene by inserting nanospacers

Zizhao Xu, Taiki Inoue, Yuta Nishina, Yoshihiro Kobayashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Toward macroscopic applications of graphene, it is desirable to preserve the superior properties of single-layer graphene in bulk scale. However, the AB-stacking structure is thermodynamically favored for multilayer graphene and causes strong interlayer interactions, resulting in property degradation. A promising approach to prevent the strong interlayer interaction is the staking order reduction of graphene, where the graphene layers are rotated in-plane to form a randomly stacking structure. In this study, we propose a strategy to effectively decrease the stacking order of multilayer graphene by incorporating nanospacers, cellulose nanofibers, or nano-diamonds (NDs) in the formation process of porous graphene sponges. We conducted an ultrahigh temperature treatment at 1500 °C with ethanol vapor for the reduction and structural repair of graphene oxide sponges with different concentrations of the nanospacers. Raman spectroscopy indicated an obvious increase in the random-stacking fraction of graphene by adding the nanospacers. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that a small amount of the nanospacers induced a remarkable decrease in ordered graphene crystalline size in the stacking direction. It was also confirmed that a layer-number increase during the thermal treatment was suppressed by the nanospacers. The increase in the random-stacking fraction is attributed to the efficient formation of randomly rotated graphene through the ethanol-mediated structural restoration of relatively thin layers induced by the nanospacers. This stacking-order-reduced graphene with bulk scale is expected to be used in macroscopic applications, such as electrode materials and wearable devices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number174305
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - Nov 7 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Physics and Astronomy


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