Surface roughness and gloss of indirect composites etched with acidulated phosphate fluoride solution

Naoko Ohara, Hiroyasu Koizumi, Yoshifumi Matsumoto, Daisuke Nakayama, Tomohisa Ogino, Hideo Matsumura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Objective. To evaluate the surface characteristics of indirect composites etched with acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) solution. Material and methods. APF solution was applied to specimens of six composite materials. The surface morphological change was measured with a confocal laser scanning microscope. Gloss measurement and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation were also performed. Results. The APF-treated surface showed various patterns due to the difference in the filler incorporated in each composite. The surface properties could be evaluated precisely from the surface roughness parameters. The arithmetical mean deviation of roughness profile (Ra) parameter of the specimens treated with APF solution was higher than those of the specimens untreated with APF, except New Meta Color Infis (IF). The difference in etching influence of each composite material was shown conclusively in the maximum height of the profile (Rz) parameter. Gradia (GR) and Gradia Forte (GF) were etched three times more deeply than that of IF categorized microfilled composite. The mean width of the profile element (RSm) decreased significantly after APF treatment, except in IF. Gloss was reduced apparently in all materials, indicating that gloss reduction was sensitive to slight surface changes. Conclusions. Specific filler particles of prosthodontic composite materials were etched by APF application. The surface roughness parameters, such as Rz and RSm, properly described various surface topographic features. Gloss was strongly correlated to surface roughness, as defined by these parameters, and especially to the initial change of surface roughness.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)313-320
Number of pages8
JournalActa Odontologica Scandinavica
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Acidulated phosphate fluoride
  • Composite resins
  • Confocal laser scanning microscopy
  • Surface properties

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dentistry(all)


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