14 Citations (Scopus)


Epiretinal membrane (ERM) is a common retinal disease characterized by cellular proliferation and metaplasia that lead to the formation of a pathological fibrocellular membrane immediately superjacent to the inner retinal surface. The vast majority of ERMs are considered idiopathic. However, ERM formation can result from various primary intraocular diseases, including retinal breaks and detachment, retinal vascular diseases, and vitreoretinal inflammatory conditions. Although ERMs are generally asymptomatic or cause mild metamorphopsia and/or a modest decrease in visual acuity, some can cause severe macular distortion and macular edema, resulting in significantly impaired function. Surgical removal of ERM is the only treatment, and improvements in vitrectomy systems have enabled less invasive treatment. However, there are currently no standardized criteria for ERM surgery, and the indications for surgery are determined from the patient’s subjective symptoms. Another problem with ERM surgery is that not all patients show satisfactory postoperative recovery of visual function.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)403-413
Number of pages11
JournalActa medica Okayama
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • epiretinal membrane
  • internal limiting membrane
  • lamellar macular hole
  • optical coherence tomography
  • vitrectomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology


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