Th1/Th2 and regulatory cytokines in adults with otitis media with effusion

Shin Kariya, Mitsuhiro Okano, Hisashi Hattori, Yuji Sugata, Rie Matsumoto, Kunihiro Fukushima, Patricia A. Schachern, Sebahattin Cureoglu, Michael M. Paparella, Kazunori Nishizaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVE: Otitis media with effusion is one of the most common and intractable ear diseases. However, the role of Th1, Th2, and immunoregulatory cytokines on the pathogenesis of the disease in adult patients remains to be determined. The aim of this study is to disclose the cytokine expression in middle ear effusions (MEEs) in adults and to compare the profile on the basis of the presence of allergic rhinitis and the type of effusions. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective controlled clinical study. PATIENTS: MEEs were collected from 80 adult subjects. The concentration of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, and interferon (IFN)-γ in MEEs were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, and IFN-γ in MEEs were detected in 60 (75.0%), 33 (41.3%), 42 (52.5%), 14 (17.5%), 80 (100%), and 66 (82.5%) samples, respectively. Among these cytokines, only the concentration of IL-4 in the allergic rhinitis-positive group was significantly higher than that in the allergic rhinitis-negative group. On the other hand, IL-2, IL-12, and IFN-γ were detected, regardless of the presence of allergic rhinitis, and the concentration of these cytokines correlated with each other. The correlation between the concentration of IL-4 and IL-5 was also detected. In addition, both the incidence rate and the concentration of IL-10 in MEEs were significantly higher in the mucoid type compared with those in the serous type effusions. CONCLUSION: Regardless of allergic status, IL-12 may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of otitis media with effusion by affecting the production of IL-2 and IFN-γ. In addition, IL-4 may have some impact on the immunologic condition in adults with allergic rhinitis. IL-10 potentially affects the viscosity of MEEs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1089-1093
Number of pages5
JournalOtology and Neurotology
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2006


  • Cytokine
  • IL-10
  • IL-12
  • Interleukin
  • Otitis media with effusion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology
  • Sensory Systems
  • Clinical Neurology


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