The effect of flanker category on crowding is modulated by processing time

Yiyang Yu, Qiong Wu, Qi Dai, Jiajia Yang, Satoshi Takahashi, Yoshimichi Ejima, Jinglong Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


When the human visual system processes complex scenes, crowding is considered a bottleneck in interpreting visual information. Several studies have reported that visual crowding seems to occur in the early stage of visual possessing. After that, extensive evidence suggested that high-level visual information has a major effect on crowding, which showed substantial interest in the impact of high-level visual information on crowding. However, the temporal property of high-level crowding is not well understood. Here, we performed a series of behavioural experiments to show how flanker category information and exposure time affected crowding's intensity. We found that as the category's effect becomes stronger, the intensity of crowding will be reduced in longer exposure time. The peak of this effect occurs at the time window of 100 ms-150 ms after the stimulus appears. We propose that exposure time may modulate high-level information processing depth, which can adjust multi-level crowding.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)100-109
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Mechatronics and Automation
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Behavioural experiment
  • Flanker category effect
  • Multi-level crowding
  • Temporal property

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Computational Mechanics
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Computational Mathematics
  • Artificial Intelligence
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'The effect of flanker category on crowding is modulated by processing time'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this