The influence of lifestyle on the incidence of dental caries among 3-year-old Japanese children

Masako Watanabe, Da Hong Wang, Akihiro Ijichi, Chika Shirai, Yu Zou, Masayuki Kubo, Kei Takemoto, Chie Masatomi, Keiki Ogino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


The present cohort study examined how lifestyle, household environment, and caries activity test score of Japanese children at age 1.5 years affected their dental caries incidence at age 3. Inclusion criteria were 1.5-year-old children with no dental caries. Dental examinations were performed for 33,655 children who participated in routine dental examinations at 1.5 years of age, and the exam was repeated approximately 21 months later (at age 3) at the Kobe City Public Health Center in Japan. After excluding 622 children who had caries at age 1.5 and 1831 children with missing lifestyle and household environment data in the questionnaires, the final data analysis was performed on a total of 31,202 children (16,052 boys, 15,150 girls).The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated a strong association of the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages/snacks, less frequent tooth brushing by the parents, lack of fluoride varnish, family history of smoking, with the risk of developing dental caries. A child’s late bedtime is also one of the major risk factors for dental caries development. Further investigation is needed to examine whether the short duration or the irregularity of the sleep-wake cycle would affect early childhood oral health and whether there is a relationship between late bedtime and late night snack intake.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)12611-12622
Number of pages12
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 5 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • 3-year-olds
  • Child’s bedtime
  • Cohort study
  • Dental caries
  • Lifestyles
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pollution
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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