The medaka mutant deficient in eyes shut homolog exhibits opsin transport defects and enhanced autophagy in retinal photoreceptors

Keita Sato, Yang Liu, Takahiro Yamashita, Hideyo Ohuchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Eyes shut homolog (EYS) encodes a proteoglycan and the human mutation causes retinitis pigmentosa type 25 (RP25) with progressive retinal degeneration. RP25 most frequently affects autosomal recessive RP patients with many ethnic backgrounds. Although studies using RP models have facilitated the development of therapeutic medications, Eys has been lost in rodent model animals. Here we examined the roles for Eys in the maintenance of photoreceptor structure and function by generating eys-null medaka fish using the CRISPR-Cas9 system. Medaka EYS protein was present near the connecting cilium of wild-type photoreceptors, while it was absent from the eys−/− retina. The mutant larvae exhibited a reduced visual motor response compared with wild-type. In contrast to reported eys-deficient zebrafish at the similar stage, no retinal cell death was detected in the 8-month post-hatching (8-mph) medaka eys mutant. Immunohistochemistry showed a significant reduction in the length of cone outer segments (OSs), retention of OS proteins in the inner segments of photoreceptors, and abnormal filamentous actin network at the base of cone OSs in the mutant retina by 8 mph. Electron microscopy revealed aberrant structure of calyceal processes, numerous vesiculation and lamellar interruptions, and autophagosomes in the eys-mutant cone photoreceptors. In situ hybridization showed an autophagy component gene, gabarap, was ectopically expressed in the eys-null retina. These results suggest eys is required for regeneration of OS, especially of cone photoreceptors, and transport of OS proteins by regulating actin filaments. Enhanced autophagy may delay the progression of retinal degeneration when lacking EYS in the medaka retina.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)249-267
Number of pages19
JournalCell and Tissue Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2023


  • Autophagy
  • Cone photoreceptor
  • Eyes shut homolog
  • Eys
  • RP25
  • Retinitis pigmentosa

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Histology
  • Cell Biology


Dive into the research topics of 'The medaka mutant deficient in eyes shut homolog exhibits opsin transport defects and enhanced autophagy in retinal photoreceptors'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this