The requirement of zinc and calcium ions for functional MMP activity in demineralized dentin matrices

Arzu Tezvergil-Mutluay, Kelli A. Agee, Tomohiro Hoshika, Marcela Carrilho, Lorenzo Breschi, Leo Tjäderhane, Yoshihiro Nishitani, Ricardo M. Carvalho, Stephen Looney, Franklin R. Tay, David H. Pashley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

132 Citations (Scopus)


The progressive degradation of resin-dentin bonds is due, in part, to the slow degradation of collagen fibrils in the hybrid layer by endogenous matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) of the dentin matrix. In in vitro durability studies, the storage medium composition might be important because the optimum activity of MMPs requires both zinc and calcium. Objective: This study evaluated the effect of different storage media on changes in matrix stiffness, loss of dry weight or solubilization of collagen from demineralized dentin beams incubated in vitro for up to 60 days. Methods: Dentin beams (1 mm × 2 mm × 6 mm) were completely demineralized in 10% phosphoric acid. After baseline measurements of dry mass and elastic modulus (E) (3-point bending, 15% strain) the beams were divided into 5 groups (n = 11/group) and incubated at 37 °C in either media containing both zinc and calcium designated as complete medium (CM), calcium-free medium, zinc-free medium, a doubled-zinc medium or water. Beams were retested at 3, 7, 14, 30, and 60 days of incubation. The incubation media was hydrolyzed with HCl for the quantitation of hydroxyproline (HOP) as an index of solubilization of collagen by MMPs. Data were analyzed using repeated measures of ANOVA. Results: Both the storage medium and the storage time showed significant effects on E, mass loss and HOP release (p < 0.05). The incubation in CM resulted in relatively rapid and significant (p < 0.05) decreases in stiffness, and increasing amounts of mass loss. The HOP content of the experimental media also increased with incubation time but was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than in the control CM medium, the recommended storage medium. Conclusions: The storage solutions used to age resin-dentin bonds should be buffered solutions that contain both calcium and zinc. The common use of water as an aging medium may underestimate the hydrolytic activity of endogenous dentin MMPs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1059-1067
Number of pages9
JournalDental Materials
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Calcium
  • Dentin
  • Elastic modulus
  • Matrix metalloproteinases
  • Storage solution
  • Zinc

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Dentistry(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials


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