The rewarming index formula for pediatric cardiopulmonary perfusion

Hideshi Itoh, Shingo Kasahara, Yasuhiro Fujii, Ysuhiro Kotani, Sadahiko Arai, Shunji Sano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Careful rewarming of perfusion blood following cardiopulmonary bypass surgery is critical to a successful outcome, but the optimal rewarming strategy is not clear. The purpose of this study was to derive a formula for a rewarming index (defined as [rewarming time × perfusion flow]/[body weight × body surface area]) that would enable the calculation of the ideal rewarming conditions for pediatric cardiopulmonary perfusion. We retrospectively investigated 220 pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass operations conducted from July 2005 to June 2008 in Okayama University Hospital, Japan. We determined the formula as Φ = (T × Q)/(R × S) = |0.9127P - 0.0152|, where Φ = rewarming index, T = rewarming time (min), Q = perfusion volume (L), R = body weight (kg), S = body surface area (m2), and P = temperature gap (). The formula will help those who perform pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass surgery to establish ideal perfusion flow conditions and to control physiological temperature during rewarming.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)896-903
Number of pages8
JournalArtificial Organs
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2009


  • Body temperature
  • Flow rate
  • Formula
  • Hypothermia
  • Pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass
  • Perfusion
  • Rewarming

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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