Theoretical simulation of extreme UV radiation source for lithography

K. Fujima, K. Nishihara, T. Kawamura, H. Furukawa, T. Kagawa, F. Koike, R. More, M. Murakami, T. Nishikawa, A. Sasaki, A. Sunahara, V. Zhakhovskii, T. Fujimoto, H. Tanuma

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


A possible design window for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation source has been introduced, which is needed for its realistic use for next generation lithography. For this goal, we have prepared a set of numerical simulation codes to estimate the conversion efficiency from laser energy to radiation energy with a wavelength of 13.5 nm with 2% bandwidth, which includes atomic structure, opacity and emissibity and hydro dynamics codes. The simulation explains well the observed conversion efficiency dependence of incident power using GEKKO XII laser system as well as spectral shapes. It is found that the conversion efficiency into 13.5 nm at 2% bandwidth has its maximum of a few percent at the laser intensity 1-2 × 10 11 W/cm 2.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)405-412
Number of pages8
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Issue numberPART 1
Publication statusPublished - 2004
EventEmerging Lithographic Technologies VIII - Santa Clara, CA, United States
Duration: Feb 24 2004Feb 26 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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