Thermoelectric Generation Based on Spin Seebeck Effects

Ken Ichi Uchida, Hiroto Adachi, Takashi Kikkawa, Akihiro Kirihara, Masahiko Ishida, Shinichi Yorozu, Sadamichi Maekawa, Eiji Saitoh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

223 Citations (Scopus)


The spin Seebeck effect (SSE) refers to the generation of a spin current as a result of a temperature gradient in magnetic materials including insulators. The SSE is applicable to thermoelectric generation because the thermally generated spin current can be converted into a charge current via spin-orbit interaction in conductive materials adjacent to the magnets. The insulator-based SSE device exhibits unconventional characteristics potentially useful for thermoelectric applications, such as simple structure, device-design flexibility, and convenient scaling capability. In this article, we review recent studies on the SSE from the viewpoint of thermoelectric applications. Firstly, we introduce the thermoelectric generation process and measurement configuration of the SSE, followed by showing fundamental characteristics of the SSE device. Secondly, a theory of the thermoelectric conversion efficiency of the SSE device is presented, which clarifies the difference between the SSE and conventional thermoelectric effects and the efficiency limit of the SSE device. Finally, we show preliminary demonstrations of the SSE in various device structures for future thermoelectric applications and discuss prospects of the SSE-based thermoelectric technologies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7452553
Pages (from-to)1946-1973
Number of pages28
JournalProceedings of the IEEE
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2016


  • anomalous Nernst effect
  • inverse spin Hall effect
  • magnetic material
  • spin Seebeck effect
  • spin current
  • spintronics
  • thermoelectric generation
  • thin film

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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