Recent studies based on high-resolution direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of turbulence have shown that there are three different types of shear layers in homogeneous and inhomogeneous turbulent flows; at the outer edge (T/NT), in the interior (T/T) and within the buffer layer near the wall (T/W). All the layers play important roles in various turbulence phenomena in the fields of natural sciences and engineering applications. Data analyses showed that all the shear layers act as a barrier of the velocity fluctuations by blocking velocity fluctuations from the one side to the other side. It was suggested that the blocking mechanism of thin turbulent wall (T/W) layers can be used to control the turbulent wake of aerofoils. For high Reynolds number, flows over typical aerofoils at low angle of incidence in the thin turbulent boundary layers (TBLs) have a conditional structure with thin T/W layers which act as a barrier to eddies in the outer part of the TBL. Recent studies indicate that using disturbance—devices at the airfoil surface enhances the blocking effect of the TW barrier and leads—unexpectedly-to reduced shear fluctuations at the wall. This suggests that deeper understanding of the structures and properties of the T/W layers may provide ideas to consider the better strategies for aerofoils designs. In this paper, we review the recent studies on the three different types of shear layers, which are based on the high-resolution DNSs of homogeneous isotropic turbulence (HIT), turbulent boundary layer (TBL), and turbulent channel flow (TCF).