Three-dimensional metallic micro/nanostructures fabricated by two-photon-induced reduction of metal ions

Takuo Tanaka, Atsushi Ishikawa, Satoshi Kawata

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Citation (Scopus)


We report on a technique that enables to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) metallic microstructures by means of two-photon-induced metal-ion reduction. A femtosecond near-infrared laser is focused by a high-NA objective lens into a metal-ion aqueous solution. Due to the nonlinear nature of the two-photon absorption (TPA) process, metal-ions are directly reduced only at the focused spot. By scanning the laser beam spot in three dimensions, we can directly obtain arbitrary 3D metallic structures. To fabricate silver and gold structures, we use a 0.2-M aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and a 0.24-M aqueous solution of tetra chloroauric acid (HAuCl4), respectively. We demonstrate the fabrication of a continuous and electrically conductive silver wire whose minimum width is 400 nm. Electrical measurement shows that the resistivity of the fabricated silver wire is 5.30 × 10 -8 Ωm, which is only 3.3 times larger than that of bulk silver (1.62 × 10-8 Ωm). We also discuss the resolution of our technique in terms of ions diffusion based on the Pick's first law and the mobility of metal-ions in aqueous solution. Moreover, the realization of a self-standing 3D silver microstructures on the substrates are demonstrated. This method will become a promising technique for fabricating 3D plasmonic micro/nano structures with arbitrary shape.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPlasmonics
Subtitle of host publicationNanoimaging, Nanofabrication, and their Applications II
Publication statusPublished - Nov 21 2006
EventPlasmonics: Nanoimaging, Nanofabrication, and their Applications II - San Diego, CA, United States
Duration: Aug 16 2006Aug 17 2006

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X


OtherPlasmonics: Nanoimaging, Nanofabrication, and their Applications II
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Diego, CA


  • Conductivity
  • Diffusion theory
  • Micro structure
  • Plasmonic metamaterial
  • Reduction
  • Three-dimensional metallic structure
  • Two-photon absorption

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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