Time-dependent image changes after ethanol injection into the pancreas: An experimental study using a porcine model

Kazuyuki Matsumoto, Hironari Kato, Koichiro Tsutsumi, Soichiro Fushimi, Masaya Iwamuro, Shinsuke Oda, Sho Mizukawa, Yutaka Akimoto, Daisuke Uchida, Takeshi Tomoda, Naoki Yamamoto, Shigeru Horiguchi, Hiroyuki Okada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Ethanol, a commonly available agent, has been used to successfully ablate cystic and solid lesions in the pancreas. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of an ethanol injection into the porcine pancreas and observe the time-dependent image changes in the pancreatic parenchyma. Methods: Pure ethanol was injected into the pancreatic tail using a 25-gauge EUS needle with direct ultrasound guidance under celiotomy: 1 mL and 2 mL were injected, respectively. The abdomen was closed after the injection. MRI was performed before the procedure, immediately after, and on postoperative day (POD) seven. Blood samples were taken before the procedure and on PODs one, three, five, and seven. The pigs were euthanised on POD seven. Results: Immediately after the injection, linear high signal areas in the pancreatic tail on T2 and rounded speckled high signal areas on DWI images were detected in both animals, measuring 35 × 32 mm in the 1 mL injected pig and 42 × 38mm in the 2 mL injected pig. After POD seven, rounded high signal areas were noted on T2 images, measuring 22 × 18 mm and 36 × 28 mm respectively. On POD one, the 1 mL injected animal had a 53% elevation in serum amylase while the 2 mL injected animal had a 66% elevation. Histologically, cystic and necrotic changes in the parenchyma were observed, measuring 23 × 22 mm and 40 × 35 mm respectively. Conclusions: Our results, which are limited to normal pancreas, suggested that a 1 mL injection caused localised changes within the pancreas while a 2 mL injection induced more widespread changes beyond the pancreas. The effective area of ethanol was widespread immediately after injection, and then the area was reduced with cystic and necrosis changes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number663
Publication statusPublished - Aug 15 2016


  • Ethanol injection
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Pancreas
  • Porcine model
  • Ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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