TNF-α-mediated activation of HIV-1 LTR in monocytoid cells by mycobacteria

Hideki Kitaura, Naoya Ohara, Kazuhide Kobayashi, Takeshi Yamada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Mycobacterial infection occurs commonly in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Incubation of monocytoid cell line U937 cells, which was cotransfected HIV-1 long terminal repeat sequence (LTR) chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) plasmid and Tat expression plasmid, with Mycobacterium smegmatis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Mycobacterium tuberculosis resulted in enhancement of CAT production, indicating that these mycobacteria could activate LTR in this cell line. The amount of CAT in the cells coexisting with M. smegmatis was higher than that infected with other mycobacteria. The amounts of CAT production in the cells coculturing with M. avium and M. bovis BCG were intermediate. M. tuberculosis slightly stimulated CAT production. The amount of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α produced by transfected U937 cells was correlated with the amount of CAT production. The interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels in the supernatant from coculturing with all species were similar. The antibody to TNF-α inhibited CAT production induced by mycobacterial infections. The anti-IL-1β and anti-IL-6 antibodies, however, scarcely influenced stimulation of LTR by mycobacteria. In addition, U937 cells transfected with full length LTR CAT plasmid showed increased CAT production by activation with mycobacteria, but the cells transfected with mutant LTR CAT constructs from which the nuclear factor (NF)-κB binding site was deleted did not show activation. These findings indicated that activation of Mycobacterium-induced LTR CAT is NF-κB dependent. These findings suggested that activation of HIV-1 LTR by mycobacteria was mainly mediated by NF-κB-induced secondary release of cytokine TNF-α.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)97-103
Number of pages7
JournalFEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Human immunodeficiency virus
  • Monocyte
  • Mycobacterium
  • Tumor necrosis factor-α
  • U937

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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