Toll signalling promotes blastema cell proliferation during cricket leg regeneration via insect macrophages

Tetsuya Bando, Misa Okumura, Yuki Bando, Marou Hagiwara, Yoshimasa Hamada, Yoshiyasu Ishimaru, Taro Mito, Eri Kawaguchi, Takeshi Inoue, Kiyokazu Agata, Sumihare Noji, Hideyo Ohuchi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Hemimetabolous insects, such as the two-spotted cricket Gryllus bimaculatus, can recover lost tissues, in contrast to the limited regenerative abilities of human tissues. Following cricket leg amputation, the wound surface is covered by the wound epidermis, and plasmatocytes, which are insect macrophages, accumulate in the wound region. Here, we studied the function of Toll-related molecules identified by comparative RNA sequencing during leg regeneration. Of the 11 Toll genes in the Gryllus genome, expression of Toll2-1, Toll2-2 and Toll2-5 was upregulated during regeneration. RNA interference (RNAi) of Toll, Toll2-1, Toll2-2, Toll2-3 or Toll2-4 produced regeneration defects in more than 50% of crickets. RNAi of Toll2-2 led to a decrease in the ratio of S- and M-phase cells, reduced expression of JAK/STAT signalling genes, and reduced accumulation of plasmatocytes in the blastema. Depletion of plasmatocytes in crickets using clodronate also produced regeneration defects, as well as fewer proliferating cells in the regenerating legs. Plasmatocyte depletion also downregulated the expression of Toll and JAK/STAT signalling genes in the regenerating legs. These results suggest that Spz-Toll-related signalling in plasmatocytes promotes leg regeneration through blastema cell proliferation by regulating the Upd-JAK/STAT signalling pathway.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberdev199916
JournalDevelopment (Cambridge)
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Blastema
  • Gryllus bimaculatus
  • JAK/STAT signalling
  • Macrophages
  • Regeneration
  • Toll-related signalling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Developmental Biology


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