Transdiagnostic comparisons of intellectual abilities and work outcome in patients with mental disorders: Multicentre study

Chika Sumiyoshi, Kazutaka Ohi, Haruo Fujino, Hidenaga Yamamori, Michiko Fujimoto, Yuka Yasuda, Yota Uno, Junichi Takahashi, Kentaro Morita, Asuka Katsuki, Maeri Yamamoto, Yuko Okahisa, Ayumi Sata, Eiichi Katsumoto, Michihiko Koeda, Yoji Hirano, Masahito Nakataki, Junya Matsumoto, Kenichiro Miura, Naoki HashimotoManabu Makinodan, Tsutomu Takahashi, Kiyotaka Nemoto, Toshifumi Kishimoto, Michio Suzuki, Tomiki Sumiyoshi, Ryota Hashimoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background Cognitive impairment is common in people with mental disorders, leading to transdiagnostic classification based on cognitive characteristics. However, few studies have used this approach for intellectual abilities and functional outcomes. Aims The present study aimed to classify people with mental disorders based on intellectual abilities and functional outcomes in a data-driven manner. Method Seven hundred and forty-nine patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression disorder or autism spectrum disorder and 1030 healthy control subjects were recruited from facilities in various regions of Japan. Two independent k-means cluster analyses were performed. First, intelligence variables (current estimated IQ, premorbid IQ, and IQ discrepancy) were included. Second, number of work hours per week was included instead of premorbid IQ. Results Four clusters were identified in the two analyses. These clusters were specifically characterised in terms of IQ discrepancy in the first cluster analysis, whereas the work variable was the most salient feature in the second cluster analysis. Distributions of clinical diagnoses in the two cluster analyses showed that all diagnoses were unevenly represented across the clusters. Conclusions Intellectual abilities and work outcomes are effective classifiers in transdiagnostic approaches. The results of our study also suggest the importance of diagnosis-specific strategies to support functional recovery in people with mental disorders.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere98
JournalBJPsych Open
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jul 3 2022


  • Schizophrenia
  • autism spectrum disorder
  • bipolar disorder
  • intelligence
  • major depression disorder
  • work outcome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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