Ultrafast structural dynamics with table top femtosecond hard X-ray and electron diffraction setups

M. Hada, K. Pichugin, G. Sciaini

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


The following tutorial review is directed to graduate students willing to be part of the emerging field of ultrafast structural dynamics. It provides them with an introduction to the field and all the very basic assumptions and experimental tricks involved in femtosecond (fs) diffraction techniques. The concept of stroboscopic photography and its implication in ultrafast science are introduced. Special attention is paid to the generation of ultrashort electron and hard X-ray pulses in table top setups, and a direct comparison in terms of brightness and temporal resolution between current table top and facility-based methodologies is given for proper calibration. This review is focused on ultrafast X-ray and electron diffraction techniques. The progress in the development of fs-structural probes during the last twenty years has been tremendous. Current ultrafast structural probes provide us with the temporal and spatial resolutions required to observe atoms in motion. Different compression approaches have made it possible the generation of ultrashort and ultrabright electron pulses with an effective brightness close to that of fs-hard X-ray pulses produced by free electron lasers. We now have in hand a variety of ultrafast structural cameras ready to be applied for the study of an endless list of dynamical phenomena at the atomic level of inspection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1093-1123
Number of pages31
JournalEuropean Physical Journal: Special Topics
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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