Unprecedented phenomena with tempering of Ti-4Fe-7Al Alloy

Yoshito Takemoto, Masahiro Ochi, Takehide Senuma, Jun Takada, Ichiro Shimizu, Kazuhiro Matsugi

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13 Citations (Scopus)


Unprecedented phenomena were discovered by tempering the Ti-4Fe-7Al alloy quenched from the βß (bec) field. The alloy became very hard when it was tempered at 450°C for several minutes, and severely rugged surface was generated. The inverse shape recovery phenomenon was also discovered when a quenched specimen that had been bent at room temperature was heated. The tempered microstructure showed almost β grains and some of the usual martensitic acicular structure areas. However, elec- tron back scattering pattern (EBSP) measurements showed that the β-like grain was not the bcc structure but was the hcp or orthorhombic structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements clarified that an orthorhombic α" structure (a = 0.299 5 nm, b = 0.491 3 nm, c=0.465 9 nm) was formed from the β phase by tempering. Moreover, this α" structure was confirmed to be a type of martensitic transformation because no concentration distribution was detected in scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) analysis of the microstructure. It was suggested that the essential M s point of the alloy should be higher than room temperature; however, the martensite transformation could not operate by fast quenching. The newly-discovered α martensite is formed without atomic diffusion by heating. When the β grain transforms into the single α-variant, a very huge lattice strain is generated, resulting in the severely rugged surface or the inverse shape recovery phenomenon.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)449-455
Number of pages7
JournalNippon Kinzoku Gakkaishi/Journal of the Japan Institute of Metals
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2012


  • Heat treatment
  • M point
  • Martensite
  • Shape recovery
  • Surface roughness
  • Variant

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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