Up-regulated expression and activation of the orphan chemokine receptor, CCRL2, in rheumatoid arthritis

Carole L. Galligan, Wataru Matsuyama, Akihiro Matsukawa, Hiroshi Mizuta, David R. Hodge, O. M.Zack Howard, Teizo Yoshimura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Citations (Scopus)


Objective. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by a cellular influx and destruction of the joint architecture. Chemokines characteristically regulate leukocyte recruitment and activation. Chemokine (CC motif) receptor-like 2 (CCRL2) is an orphan receptor with homology to other CC chemokine receptors. We undertook this study to examine CCRL2 expression in RA, cytokine regulation of expression, and the source of a putative ligand in an attempt to determine the role of this receptor during inflammation. Methods. Expression of CCRL2 on joint-infiltrating leukocytes was examined by immunocytochemistry. In vitro studies evaluated CCRL2 expression in primary neutrophils using Northern and Western blotting and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. HEK 293 cells expressing two splice variants of CCRL2 (HEK/CCRL2A or HEK/CCRL2B) were generated with a retroviral expression system, and their migration in response to fractions of synovial fluid (SF) from RA patients was examined using a 48-well chamber. Results. CCRL2 expression was observed on all infiltrating neutrophils and on some macrophages obtained from the SF of 5 RA patients. In vitro studies of primary neutrophils revealed that CCRL2 messenger RNA (mRNA) was rapidly up-regulated following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (1 μg/ml) or tumor necrosis factor (5 ng/ml). The mRNA for both CCRL2A and CCRL2B were expressed in cytokine-stimulated neutrophils. Cells expressing either of these splice variants migrated in response to a fraction of RA SF. Conclusion. CCRL2 expression is up-regulated on synovial neutrophils of RA patients. Inflammatory products present in the SF activate this receptor, indicating that CCRL2 is a functional receptor that may be involved in the pathogenesis of RA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1806-1814
Number of pages9
JournalArthritis and Rheumatism
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2004
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Rheumatology
  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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