Validity of W angle and YEN angle in a sample from Pakistani and Bangladeshi populations

Mohammad Khursheed Alam, Irfan Qamruddin, Rina Muraoka, Keisuke Nakano, Norimasa Okafuji

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Lateral cephalometric analysis is an integral part of orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. The usual practice is to compare the cephalometric analysis of the patient with the established normal values. Since craniofacial morphology varies among different populations therefore it becomes important to establish the cephalometric norms of all cephalometric analyses, for every population. The aims of this study were to evaluate the validity of newly introduced cephalometric analysis using W angle and YEN angle in Pakistani and Bangladeshi samples and to compare both populations with commonly used sagittal measurements. In this study 200 lateral cephalograms of Bangladeshi population and 209 of Pakistani population were traced for ANB, Wits appraisal, Beta angle, W angle and YEN angle. Patients were divided into skeletal Class I, II and III groups. A significant difference was found in all performed measurements among skeletal groups in both the samples (p<0.001). Mean values of ANB, Wits appraisal and YEN angle differed significantly between both the samples in class I and class II subjects (p<0.05). No statistically significant difference was found in Beta angle and W angle values. The norm for W angle was established for the Pakistani (54.5±3) and Bangladeshi population (55±3). YEN angle norm for the Pakistani population was found to be 119.5±3, and for the Bangladeshi population it was 120.5±3. These results suggest that all the performed analyses are valid and can be used to diagnose skeletal discrepancies and diagnosis based on single analysis is insufficient. Bangladeshi and Pakistani populations differ in craniofacial morphology; therefore their own cephalometric norms should be followed for treatment of patients belonging to their respective populations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)351-356
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Hard Tissue Biology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Bangladeshi
  • Pakistani
  • Sagittal discrepancy
  • W angle
  • YEN angle

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Biochemistry
  • Biomaterials
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • General Dentistry
  • Cell Biology


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