Vestibular abnormalities in congenital disorders

Isamu Sando, Yorihisa Orita, Makoto Miura, Carey D. Balaban

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


This paper reviews the histopathologic features of vestibular abnormalities in congenital disorders affecting the inner ear, based upon a comprehensive literature survey and a review of cases in our temporal bone collection. The review proceeds in three systematic steps. First, we surveyed associated diseases with the major phenotypic features of congenital abnormalities of the inner ear (including the internal auditory canal and otic capsule). Second, the vestibular anomalies are examined specifically. Finally, the anomalies are discussed from a developmental perspective. Among vestibular anomalies, a hypoplastic endolymphatic duct and sac are observed most frequently. Anomalies of the semicircular canals are also often observed. From embryological and clinical viewpoints, many of these resemble the structural features from fetal stages and appear to be associated with vestibular dysfunction. It is expected that progress in genetic analysis and accumulation of temporal bone specimens with vestibular abnormalities in congenital diseases will provide crucial information not only for pathology of those diseases, but also for genetic factors that are responsible for the specific vestibular abnormalities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15-24
Number of pages10
JournalAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Publication statusPublished - 2001


  • Congenital disorders
  • Temporal bone
  • Vestibular abnormalities

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • History and Philosophy of Science


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