Virtual scale function of gastrointestinal endoscopy for accurate polyp size estimation in real-time: A preliminary study

Masato Yoshioka, Yuichi Sakaguchi, Daisuke Utsunomiya, Shinichiro Sonoda, Takeichi Tatsuta, Satoshi Ozawa, Yuichi Teramura, Keita Harada, Hideaki Kinugasa, Hiroyuki Okada

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Significance: Polyp size is important for selecting the surveillance interval or treatment policy. Nevertheless, it is challenging to accurately estimate the polyp size during endoscopy. An easy and cost-effective function to assist in polyp size estimation is required. Aim: To propose a virtual scale function for endoscopy and evaluate its performance and expected accuracy. Approach: An adaptive virtual scale behavior was demonstrated. The measurement error of the virtual scale along the distance between the tip of the endoscope and the object plane was evaluated using graph paper. The accuracy of polyp size estimation by an expert endoscopist was compared with the accuracy of the biopsy forceps method using phantom images. Results: The measurement errors of the virtual scale were ≤ 0.7 mm when the distance to the graph paper, which faced the tip of the endoscope, varied from 4 to 30 mm. The accuracy with the virtual scale was significantly higher than that obtained with biopsy forceps (5.3 ± 5.5 % versus 11.9 ± 9.4 %, P < 0.001). Conclusions: The virtual scale function, which operates in real-time without any additional device, can be used to estimate polyp sizes easily and accurately with endoscopy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number096002
JournalJournal of Biomedical Optics
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 1 2021


  • endoscopy
  • image processing
  • laser applications
  • real-time imaging
  • size estimation
  • virtual scale

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Biomaterials


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