Vitamin B6 in acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion

Tomoyuki Akiyama, Soichiro Toda, Nobusuke Kimura, Yukiko Mogami, Yoshiyuki Hanaoka, Chiho Tokorodani, Tomoshiro Ito, Hiroyuki Miyahara, Yuki Hyodo, Katsuhiro Kobayashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Background: The initial presentation of acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD) is indistinguishable from that of complex febrile seizures (FS), which poses a great diagnostic challenge for clinicians. Excitotoxicity is speculated to be the pathogenesis of AESD. Vitamin B6 (VB6) is essential for the biosynthesis of gamma-aminobutyric acid, an inhibitory neurotransmitter. The aim of this study is to investigate our hypothesis that VB6 deficiency in the brain may play a role in AESD. Methods: We obtained cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from pediatric patients with AESD after early seizures and those with FS. We measured pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxal (PL) concentrations in the CSF samples using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Results: The subjects were 5 patients with AESD and 17 patients with FS. Age did not differ significantly between AESD and FS. In AESD, CSF PLP concentration was marginally lower (p = 0.0999) and the PLP-to-PL ratio was significantly (p = 0.0417) reduced compared to those in FS. Conclusions: Although it is impossible to conclude that low PLP concentration and PLP-to-PL ratio are causative of AESD, this may be a risk factor for developing AESD. When combined with other markers, this finding may be useful in distinguishing AESD from FS upon initial presentation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)402-407
Number of pages6
JournalBrain and Development
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2020


  • AESD
  • Biomarker
  • Febrile seizure
  • Pyridoxal 5′-phosphate
  • Pyridoxal kinase
  • Risk factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Developmental Neuroscience
  • Clinical Neurology


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