VOF-DEM-FEM combined model of the reef breakwater collapse

Shiro Maeno, Lechoslaw G. Bierawski, Waldemar Magda, Makoto Ogawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


A combined model was built of three main modules based on the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method, Discrete Element Method (DEM), and Finite Element Method (FEM). It was proposed to utilize this model to simulate the deformation of the rubble mound and the sandy bed due to surface wave action. The model included the full interaction between wave motion with free surface and replaceable separate particles of the rubble mound. Momentary arrangement of the fluid, particles and resulting permeability was tracked within a domain of time and two-dimensional space by maintaining cyclic data transfer between the three method modules. A new technique of porosity adjustment was presented. The model results were compared to small-scale laboratory test results. Based on the comparison, the VOF-DEM-FEM model appeared to be a promising tool to handle the destruction process of the rubble coastal structures built on a permeable bottom.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)223-242
Number of pages20
JournalCoastal Engineering Journal
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2009


  • Combined numerical model
  • DEM
  • Destructive numerical model
  • FEM
  • Submerged breakwater
  • VOF

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Modelling and Simulation
  • Ocean Engineering


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