Water quality characteristics of forest rivers around Lake Biwa

S. Fujii, I. Somiya, H. Nagare, S. Serizawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Forest river surveys were carried out at upper streams of several rivers in the Lake Biwa watershed to understand the water quality characteristics of the rivers, and to find out their relationships with forest features such as geographical, geological and vegetational data. The results showed: (1) Forests have some purification functions for nitrogen and organic matter, but become sources for most of ionic species. (2) Main mineral species in forest rivers are Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+, HCO3-, CO32-, Cl-, SO42- and SiO2. (3) Loading from forests was 0.4-7 kg/km2/d for TN and 0.01-0.3 kg/km2/d for TP. (4) River quality reflects the properties of each forest, and is unique to the place, especially in ionic species such as Ca2+ and Cl-. (5) A cluster analysis successfully categorized ionic components into several groups.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)183-192
Number of pages10
JournalWater Science and Technology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes


  • Forests
  • Geological features
  • Ionic species
  • Lake Biwa
  • River loading
  • Vegetation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Water Science and Technology


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