Watermarking with fixed decoder for aesthetic 2D barcode

Minoru Kuribayashi, Ee Chien Chang, Nobuo Funabiki

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

1 Citation (Scopus)


An aesthetic 2D-barcode, e.g. QR code, carries a given message in the payload and yet its visual appearance resembles another given logo image. The requirement of embedding a message in a “cover” image is similar to digital watermarking but with a crucial difference that, for the aesthetic 2D-barcode, the decoder is predetermined and fixed. Hence the designs and performances of the aesthetic 2D-barcode heavily rely on the predetermined decoder. In this paper, we focus on the underlying systematic encoding function in QR code. We first formulate a framework that optimizes the visual appearance of the codeword and yet meets the coding requirement. Since finding such an optimal codeword is computationally expensive, we next propose a heuristic to search for a feasible solution, and incorporate image processing operations to enhance the visual appearance. Although our method is designed for QR code, our approach can be applied to other 2D-barcodes that employ similar coding mechanisms of error correction code.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationDigital Forensics and Watermarking - 15th International Workshop, IWDW 2016, Revised Selected Papers
EditorsHyoung Joong Kim, Feng Liu, Fernando Perez-Gonzalez, Yun Qing Shi
PublisherSpringer Verlag
Number of pages14
ISBN (Print)9783319534640
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Event15th International Workshop on Digital-Forensics and Watermarking, IWDW 2016 - Beijing, China
Duration: Sept 17 2016Sept 19 2016

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume10082 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Other15th International Workshop on Digital-Forensics and Watermarking, IWDW 2016
City Beijing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Computer Science(all)


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