X-ray fluorescence holography (XFH) is a technique that can directly image the 3D arrangement of atoms around an element in a sample. The holograms contain both intensity and phase information, allowing atomic reconstruction without needing prior structural information or a tentative structural model. XFH has already been used to reveal the local structures of various inorganic samples, and recently, work has begun on XFH for soft matter. In this paper, we review the progress of XFH on soft materials. First, we review the fundamental principles of XFH. Second, we review inverse mode XFH on soft materials, and the results of the experiments on hemoglobin, myoglobin, and κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br crystals. In the last section, we report the progress of the development of normal mode holography for soft materials. The new apparatus and scanning method is described, and results of the initial tests on the protein Photosystem II are discussed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Engineering
- General Physics and Astronomy