Carbon dioxide（CO2）is not only a greenhouse gas but also a renewable C1 source that is important for organic synthesis. On the other hand, minimizing organic solvent is also an important subject from the viewpoint of fossil fuel, energy, resource, cost, safety, and environment. Here we summarize our achievements in solvent-free catalysis. We developed a series of bifunctional metalloporphyrin catalysts for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates or polycarbonates from epoxides and CO2. As a result of structural optimizations, Mg and Zn porphyrins having quaternary ammonium bromide groups were suitable for the synthesis of cyclic carbonates（TOF ＝12,000―46,000 h−1, TON＝55,000―310,000）. In contrast, bifunctional Al porphyrins were highly active for the copolymerization of cyclohexene oxide and CO2 to give polycarbonates. The solvent-free reaction with a catalyst loading of 0.0025 mol% under CO2（2 MPa）was conducted at 120 ℃ for 1 h to give poly（cyclohexene carbonate）: TOF＝10,000 h−1, polycarbonate selectivity ＞99%, PDI＝1.02, and Mn＝68,000. The reaction with a catalyst loading of 0.001 mol% for 24 h gave polymers with a Mn of 281,000, which corresponded to 2,000-mer. The high catalytic activities resulted from the cooperative action of the central metal ion and the quaternary ammonium salts. Chiral catalysts for the kinetic resolution of terminal or internal epoxides with CO2 were also developed. In addition, a BINOL derivative（L）was designed to make dinuclear metal complexes （M2L）; unexpectedly, heating a mixture of M and L furnished macrocyclic multinuclear metal dependent complexes N such -formylation as Zn5L3／N in -methylation high yields, of which amines showed with CO catalytic2 and hydrosilane. activities for On the the temperature other hand, - tetrabutylammonium acetate catalyzed the solvent-free N-formylation of amines with CO2 and hydrosilane to give formamides including Weinreb formamide, Me （MeO）NCHO, which was successively converted into aldehydes by one-pot reactions with Grignard reagents. In addition, the intermolecular or intramolecular asymmetric benzoin reaction was catalyzed by a small amount of N-heterocyclic carbene（NHC）under solvent-free conditions, and the solvent-free intramolecular asymmetric Stetter reaction also proceeded efficiently. In some cases, even solid-to-solid conversions took place.
|寄稿の翻訳タイトル||Environmentally Benign Organic Synthesis Based on Solvent-free Catalysis|
|ジャーナル||Yuki Gosei Kagaku Kyokaishi/Journal of Synthetic Organic Chemistry|
|出版ステータス||Published - 2021|
- carbon dioxide
- solid-to-solid conversion
- solvent-free catalysis
ASJC Scopus subject areas