Type A neurotoxin of Clostridium botulinum was purified by a simple procedure using a lactose gel column. This procedure was previously reported for type B neurotoxin. Hemagglutinin-positive toxins (19S and 16S) were bound to the column under acid conditions, and the neurotoxin alone was dissociated from these hemagglutinin-positive toxins by changing the pH of the column to an alkaline condition. The toxicity of this purified toxin preparation was retained for at least 1 year at -30°C by supplementing it with either 0.1% albumin or 0.05% albumin plus 1% trehalose. This preparation was used to treat 18 patients with urinary incontinence caused by refractory idiopathic and neurogenic detrusor overactivity; 16 of the patients showed excellent improvement. Improvements started within 1 week after injection in most cases and lasted 3-12 months. 12S toxin dissociates into an NTX and an NTNH. Recently, we discovered that 19S toxin is a dimer of 16S toxin, and that haemagglutinin consists of four subcomponents designated AA-1, AA-2, AA-3a and HA-3b.
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