We encountered a woman with re-enlarged axillary lymph nodes during a computed tomography (CT) scan for surveillance of lung adenocarcinoma with axillary lymph node metastasis at the initial diagnosis that had shrunk with standard chemotherapy. We first suspected cancer recurrence and considered a change in the chemotherapeutic regimen. However, after careful history taking regarding the timing of her Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination, and subsequent careful, close follow-up, radiological shrinkage suggested a strictly benign cause. Especially in lung cancer with a medical history of axillary lymph node involvement, clinicians should be aware that vaccine-associated lymphadenopathy can mimic cancer recurrence and sometimes prompt serious misjudgment regarding a current treatment course and strategy.
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