Since brown rice extract is a rich source of biologically active compounds, the present study is aimed to quantify the major compounds in brown rice and to compare their cytoprotective potential against oxidative stress. The content of the main hydrophobic compounds in brown rice followed the order of cycloartenyl ferulate (CAF) (89.00 ± 8.07 nmol/g) >> α-tocopherol (αT) (19.73 ± 2.28 nmol/g) > γ-tocotrienol (γT3) (18.24 ± 1.41 nmol/g) > α-tocotrienol (αT3) (16.02 ± 1.29 nmol/g) > γ-tocopherol (γT) (3.81 ± 0.40 nmol/g). However, the percent contribution of CAF to the radical scavenging activity of one gram of whole brown rice was similar to those of αT, αT3, and γT3 because of its weaker antioxidant activity. The CAF pretreatment displayed a significant cytoprotective effect on the hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity from 10 µM, which is lower than the minimal concentrations of αT and γT required for a significant protection. CAF also enhanced the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation coincided with the enhancement of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mRNA level. An HO-1 inhibitor, tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPP), significantly impaired the cytoprotection of CAF. The cytoprotective potential of CAF is attributable to its cycloartenyl moiety besides the ferulyl moiety. These results suggested that CAF is the predominant cytoprotector in brown rice against hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- コンピュータ サイエンスの応用