Time is a fundamental variable that must be quantified by organisms to survive. Depending on the previous functional definition, timing can be divided into explicit timing and implicit timing. For an explicit timing task, the estimation of the stimulus duration is given in the form of perceptual discrimination (perceptual timing) or a motor response (motor timing). For implicit timing, participants can subconsciously (exogenous) or consciously (endogenous) establish temporal expectation. However, the ability of humans to explicitly or implicitly direct attention in time varies with age. Moreover, specific brain mechanisms have been suggested for temporal processing of different time scales (microseconds, hundreds of milliseconds, seconds to minutes, and circadian rhythms). Furthermore, there have been numerous research studies on the neural networks involved in explicit timing during the measurement of sub-second and supra-second intervals.
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