A tomogram of a finger joint showing articular cartilage was generated based on X-ray dark-field imaging (XDFI) using the shift-and-add tomosynthesis algorithm. The experiment was performed at beamline 14B of the Photon Factory in Tsukuba, Japan, using synchrotron X-rays from a vertical wiggler. The incident X-ray energy was 36.0 keV. The X-ray optics for XDFI comprised two Si crystals: an asymmetric cut Si (2 2 0) monochromator-collimator and a 1.1-mm thick Si (2 2 0) Laue-case analyzer. The object was an intact cadaveric proximal interphalangeal joint fixed in formalin. Raw projection data were acquired by XDFI in a total of 41 views through an angle of 20° in 0.5° increments. The object and detector were synchronously rotated such that the fulcrum plane in the object and detector plane remained parallel. The X-ray dose for one piece of raw projection data was set to one-eleventh of that for one standard projection image by XDFI. Eleven views through an angle of 10° in increments of 1° of all 41 appropriately shifted raw projection data were added to produce arbitrary tomograms parallel to the fulcrum plane. We obtained a clear tomogram of the finger joint including the articular cartilage with the moderate artifact peculiar to tomosynthesis. Consequently, arbitrary tomograms can be obtained for the same X-ray dose as that received for one standard projection image by XDFI. The fact that an inner structure such as articular cartilage, which is invisible to conventional X-ray imaging methods, has been visualized on a tomogram with preserved refraction-enhanced contrast, is of considerable significance to clinical medicine.
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