The performance of the scaffolds holds a key to the realization of tissue engineering/regenerative medicine in clinical settings. We have focused on the vital role of the dimensional compatibility of the scaffolds. By controlling the three-dimensional (3D) shape of the scaffolds, we have significantly improved the performance of the artificial bones, which have good dimensional compatibility, resultant reduction in the operation time and corresponding invasiveness, and resultant speedy union with the host bone tissues. We conclude that 3D shape control is vital to the performance of the scaffolds.We propose that it is worth considering at least once to attempt to control the 3D shape of the scaffold by optimizing the design and fabrication method, before using expensive and highrisk growth factors and cells.
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